Thursday, October 28, 2010
Simon belonged to the group formed in Israel. They were called the "zealots." Its purpose was to work hard against the Roman invasion in their country. However, listening to the word of Christ was for him the discovery of the universality of God's love.
Jude Thaddaeus has become one of the most popular saints for the favors given to people with regard to job search.
This devotion, and lived his life in St. Bridget. You can read in his book "Revelations" deep respect and devotion to this apostle of the first century of our era.
Why celebrate the holiday the same day?
The thing is simple. Tradition has it that the two were always together in a rich and fruitful apostolate. The Lord called him to complete the number of the twelve apostles, charged with being the continuers of the work of Jesus in the world.
Jude Thaddaeus called to distinguish it from other Judas Iscariot who betrayed, sold the Lord for thirty pieces of silver and then hanged himself.
Jude Thaddaeus wrote shortly. Only a letter from him is in the Bible. The purpose of the letter was a severe criticism against the Gnostic heresy that separates the physical from the spiritual. The physical or body is bad, and the spiritual is good. And both by emanations from God himself.
His letter ends with these words: "Be eternal glory to our Lord Jesus Christ who is able to keep us free from sin, and no stain on the soul and with great joy."
Wednesday, October 27, 2010
Saint Frumentius was the first Bishop of Axum, and he is credited with bringing Christianity to Aksumite Kingdom. He was a Syro-Phoenician Greek born in Tyre.
According to the 4th century historian Rufinus (x.9), who cites Frumentius' brother Edesius as his authority, as children (ca. 316) Frumentius and Edesius accompanied their uncle Meropius on a voyage to Ethiopia. When their ship stopped at one of the harbors of the Red Sea, people of the neighborhood massacred the whole crew, with the exception of the two boys, who were taken as slaves to the King of Axum. The two boys soon gained the favour of the king, who raised them to positions of trust, and shortly before his death, gave them their liberty. The widowed queen, however, prevailed upon them to remain at the court and assist her in the education of the young heir, Ezana, and in the administration of the kingdom during the prince's minority. They remained and (especially Frumentius) used their influence to spread Christianity. First they encouraged the Christian merchants present in the country to practise their faith openly; later they also converted some of the natives.
When Ezana came of age, Edesius returned to Tyre, where he stayed and was ordained a priest. Frumentius, on the other hand, eager for the conversion of Ethiopia, accompanied Edesius as far as Alexandria, where he requested Athanasius, Patriarch of Alexandria, to send a bishop and some priests to Ethiopia. By Athanasius' own account (Athanasius, Epistola ad Constantinum), he believed Frumentius the most suitable person for the job and consecrated him as bishop, traditionally in the year 328, or according to others, between 340-346. Frumentius returned to Ethiopia, erected his episcopal see at Axum, baptized King Ezana, who had meanwhile succeeded to the throne, built many churches, and spread Christianity throughout Ethiopia. The people called Frumentius Kesate Birhan (Revealer of Light) and Abba Salama (Father of Peace), and he became the first Abune — a title given to the head of the Ethiopian Church.
A letter exists from the Emperor Constantius II to King Ezana and his brother Saizanas, in which he vainly requested them to substitute the Arian bishop Theophilus for Frumentius.
The 2004 edition of the "Roman Martyrology" succinctly states, "In Aethiopia, sancti Frumentii, episcopi, qui, primum ibi captivus, deinde, episcopus a sancto Athanasio ordinatus, Evangelium in ea regione propagavit [In Ethiopia, (the feast) of Saint Frumentius, bishop, who first was a captive there, and then, as a bishop ordained by Saint Athanasius, he spread the Gospel in that region]."
Tuesday, October 26, 2010
Fulk of Pavia was born at Piacenza, Italy in 1164 and died 1229. Fulk's parents were Scottish. He was appointed to a canonry in Piacenza. Then, after his studies in Paris, he became archpriest and bishop of Piacenza.
Six years later he was transferred by Honorius III to the see of Pavia, which he occupied for 13 years. He was cannonised and his feast day is 26 October.
Monday, October 25, 2010
The soul that wants to give himself entirely to God, not seeking anything for himself but to think, speak and act with the goal of God. And this is no bigotry, but a strong and intense drive to do enough for others.
Today's youth, who died in 285, are far from our history of the third millennium.
However, their works and their names are etched in the pages of the history of the Church forever.
Who were they?, What did?
They settled in Rome and learned the trade of shoemakers. And any work can make an announcement or proclamation of the Gospel and the riches it brings to the human soul.
This service is finalized to make shoes for the poor. These, of course, not charged them anything.
The rich, who knew the good job they did and the quality of the shoe, it charged them.
The beauty of these two believers is engaging the time of sale or free to speak enthusiastically about Jesus Christ.
And the most natural thing in the world.
Should live what they said because people heard gladly.
The French say they lived in the region of Soissons. The British, in turn, say they lived in the county of Kent, southern England.
Shakespeare's praises in his play "Henry V" and "Julius Caesar."
As everyone agrees on is that died as martyrs.
Sunday, October 24, 2010
Anthony Claret was born on December 23, 1807, is Sallent, Spain, the fifth child of John Claret and Josephine Clara.
Anthony's vocation to the Priesthood became evident at a very tender age. However, the financial circumstances of the family made it necessary for him to spend his early youth helping his father in the weaver's shop. When his help was no longer an absolute necessity in the home "the weaver's son" entered the Seminary in Vich, and was raised in the Holy Priesthood on June, 13, 1835.
The activities of the ministry in a small-town parish were unable to satisfy the yearnings of Claret's great soul. He preached first in his own Diocese and later, at the invitation of the other Bishops, he covered all of Spain and the Canary Islands. He is also known to have many a time delivered as many as eight sermons in one day and often to have heard confessions for ten solid hours without interruption.
Everywhere he went miracles of conversion were recorded and the faithful returned to a fervent militant practice of the Catholic Faith. People soon began to look to him not only for spiritual help but also for relief of their physical ills. When his personal efforts became insufficient for the task on hand he called on the assistance of other apostolic men and founded the Congregation of Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (Claretian Fathers) on July 16, 1849.
The Holy Father being well aware of Father Claret's apostolic dynamism considered him the ideal Pastor for the very difficult vacant See of Santiago in Cuba and appointed him its Archbishop. He was consecrated on October 6, 1850, taking for his motto "The Charity of Christ urgeth us on," adding the name of Mary to his own.
The first official act of the new Archbishop was to consecrate his diocese to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. He then began the systematic reconstruction of the Diocese by personally conducting retreats for all the Clergy, and his missions for the faithful of the extensive and extremely difficult territory. He instituted a Seminary for native clergy and founded an order of teaching Sisters. He published a simple illustrated catechism and devised a system for teaching religion which was later approved by the Vatican Council for the entire Church. He established cooperative Farms, Parish Credit Unions, a Boys' Town and Girls' Town, and founded the first institute of "Religious in their homes" or what are now known as Secular Institutes. He fought the injustices of wealthy European land owners, going as high as Her Majesty's government in Spain in his efforts to defend the rights of the working classes.
Queen Isabella II, the reigning sovereign in Spain, became deeply interested in the work and philosophy of the saintly Archbishop of Santiago. Wishing to see the impact of his apostolate and the influence of his holiness felt throughout her entire Realm she prevailed on the Holy Father, Pope Pius IX, to appoint him her confessor and spiritual director of the Royal Household in 1857.
It was during this period that the forces of irreligion unleashed their bitter attacks upon the Holy Archbishop and all he stood for. Every available means was used to discredit his name, and render him inactive. His enemies rested only when they had succeeded in having him banished from the country. And even then, their relentless persecution followed him into exile.
From his exile in Paris, the Archbishop traveled to Rome for the Vatican Council, at which he took a very active part. While in Rome, the Archbishop suffered a severe stroke of apoplexy and was moved back to France. He went to his reward in the Cistercian Monastery of Fontifroid on October 24, 1870.
At the present time, devotion to Saint Anthony Mary Claret is rapidly spreading throughout the world, and especially here in America.
Saturday, October 23, 2010
Born in Capistrano, diocese of Sulmona, Italy, in 1385.
The son of a French or German gentleman who died when John was young.
Carefully studied at the University of Perugia (near Assisi).
He was a lawyer and judge. In 1412 he was appointed governor of Perugia by Landislaus king of Naples, who had control of that city. He fought against corruption and bribery.
When war broke out between Perugia and Malatesta in 1416, John tries to make peace, but instead was taken prisoner of war. In prison he decided to give himself entirely to God. Had a dream that San Francisco saw that he was called to enter the Franciscan order. John had married just before being taken prisoner, but the marriage never ate and was annulled.
He entered the Franciscan order in Perugia on October 4, 1416. He was 30 years, so the novice tested it by giving the most humble offices.
He was a disciple of St. Bernardino of Siena who taught him theology. He distinguished himself as a preacher while being a deacon. Ordained at age 33. For 40 years he was an itinerant preacher in Italy and other countries. Once in Brescia (Italy) preached to a crowd of 126,000 people who had come from neighboring provinces. For his radical call to conversion and simplicity, people connected to San Juan Bautista. They brought the stuff of superstition and the occult and burned in public bonfires. He was renowned for his gift of healing and bring him to the sick so that they make the sign of the cross. As San Bernardino, spread devotion to the name of Jesus, so both, along with other Franciscans, were accused of heresy. The group successfully defended.
Many young people followed him to the religious life. Established Franciscan communities. He wrote extensively, mainly against the heresies of his day. Many of his sermons are preserved.
He slept and ate little. Doing penance.
Franciscan community twice elected him vicar general. In a visit to France met St. Colette, reformer of the Order of St. Clare, with whom he sympathized.
John had a great gift for diplomacy. He was wise and prudent measure their words knowing that they serve the will of God. Four Popes (Martin V, Eugene IV, Nicholas V and Calixtus III) employed him as ambassador to many very delicate diplomatic missions with very good results. Three times they offered him appointed bishop of major cities but chose to remain a poor preacher.
He was papal nuncio in Austria where he preached extensively and fought the heresy of the Hussites. He also preached with great fruit in Poland, invited by Casimir IV.
The Crusaders defend Europe
In 1451 the Sultan Mohammed II launched a campaign to achieve the conquest of Europe. Conquered Constantinople in 1453 and then prepared to invade Hungary. In 1454 Servia fell into his hands. News from Serbia were horrible, who refused to renounce Christ were tortured. All that was Christian was destroyed or confiscated.
In 1454 Juan Capistrano participated in the diet of Frankfort and started to prepare the defense of Hungary. Went to Hungary, and preached a crusade in defense of Christianity. At the age of 70 years the Pope Callistus II commissioned him to direct. In Szeged joined the army of peasants who had joined the army of Hunyady and they went to Belgrade. It was said that the barracks seemed more religious houses that military camps because they prayed and preached the virtue. Mass is celebrated daily. A Juan Capistrano you had a great respect.
Battle of Belgrade, 1456, save Europe from the Muslims.
The Muslims attacked Belgrade had 200 guns, 50,000 cavalry and a large fleet that entered the river Danube. Given the superiority of enemy forces, the Christians thought retire. But Juan Capistrano intervened Hunyady convincing to attack the Turkish fleet despite being much larger. By the time the defenders of the city would withdraw giving up, being encouraged John in his hands a flag with the cross and shouting incessantly: "Jesus, Jesus, Jesus." Through all the battalions shouting enthusiastically: "Brave Believers, all to defend our holy religion." John never used the weapons of this world but the prayer, penance and preaching.
While fighting in Belgrade, the Pope asked to pray the Angelus for the win. The Muslims were defeated and had to withdraw from the region. This won the battle of Belgrade on 21-22 July 1456.
St. John of Capistrano had offered his life to God to save Christianity. God accepted his offer and soon died with Hunyady victims of typhus. The bodies of those killed in battle led to a typhus epidemic also spread to the saint who was already weak and elderly. He died in Villach, Hungary, a few months later, on 23 October.
In America his name is famous for the Franciscan mission in California that bears his name.
Beatified: December 19, 1650 by Innocent X
Canonized: October 16, 1690 by Alexander VIII
Friday, October 22, 2010
Donatus was born in Ireland, of a noble family. He was educated at Inis Cealtra on Lough Derg. About 816 he visited the tombs of the Apostles in Rome with his friend, Andrew the Scot. According to Christian tradition, on his journey northwards he was led by Divine Providence to the cathedral of Fiesole, which he entered at the moment when the people were grouped around their altars praying for a bishop to deliver them from temporal and spiritual evils. Raised by popular acclaim to the See of Fiesole, Donatus instituted a revival of piety and learning in the church over which he was placed. Donatus made Andrew his deacon.
He himself did not disdain to teach "the art of metrical composition". The "Life" is interspersed with short poems written by the saintly bishop. The best known of these is the twelve-line poem in which he describes the beauty and fertility of his native land, and the prowess and piety of its inhabitants. Donatus also composed an epitaph in which he alludes to his birth in Ireland, his years in the service of the princes of Italy (Lothair and Louis), his episcopate at Fiesole, and his activity as a teacher of grammar and poetry.
Thursday, October 21, 2010
In the ninth century was discovered in Cologne, Germany, in a sixth-century church, a coiled section that begins: "Martyrdom of Ursula and 11,000 virgins."
It is a document that includes the martyrdom of these virgins into the site on which he built a beautiful church.
In "Passion" theatrical invented to tell his story, you can see that they came from England with Ursula, daughter of the king, escape the pagan Saxons were invading the country.
When his ship arrived at Cologne, Attila the terrible was about time there with the Hun.
Attila, hard, strong, very passionate temper and wanted to marry the beautiful girl Ursula. The others were turned over to his soldiers that violate or do whatever they wanted with them.
But the bully did not expect the response of these girls. When approached them and made their proposals, they replied in unison with the most emphatic denial that you can imagine.
Enraged Attila ordered the killing of the hardest way possible.
Throughout the Middle Ages ran from village to village, a romance which told the story of these martyrs. He had an incredible success.
The Institute of Angela Merici, Ursuline, took it as the patron of their apostolic works.
Thanks to a cemetery discovered in Cologne, he could see the remains of these brave girls who preferred to die rather than offend the Lord. His relics abound in many temples.
The cult of St. Ursula and her companions soon spread, and many churches were erected in his honor.
In the thirteenth century adopted it as the patron Sorbonne and the same happened at the Universities of Coimbra and Vienna.
Wednesday, October 20, 2010
Artemius was an Arian Christian, as Emperor Constantius II was. Constantius ordered Artemius to go in the lands beyond the Danube and to bring back to Constantinople the relics of Andrew the Apostle, Luke the Evangelist and Saint Timothy. Artemius accomplished his task and was rewarded with the appointment to the rank of dux Aegypti.
One year later Constantius was succeeded by his cousin Julian, who was a Pagan. The people of Alexandria accused Artemius of several atrocities, and Julian condemned him to death. Artemius was beheaded in 363 in the city of Antioch, where he had been recalled by Emperor Julian the Apostate for maladministration of his province. The charges stemmed from his persecution of pagans in Alexandria, and his use of troops in the seizure and despoliation of the Temple of Serapis instigated by George of Cappadocia. After his death, the people of Alexandria killed George.
Tuesday, October 19, 2010
He is the patron of the Jesuits in Canada and one of the most notable missionaries of the Society of Jesus.
John was born on March 25, 1593, in Condé sur Vire, in Normandy eastern France.
Belongs to a family of landowners and farmers. His parents are rich, and well regarded within its class, and throughout the region. Catholics are committed, despite the prevailing Calvinism of Normandy.
The school teacher, or perhaps the priest of the parish of Condé sur Vire, taught to read and write.
Due to the position of the family, John is studying at the Academy after the nearby town of Saint Lô. Later starts the humanistic studies at the University of Caen.
With the Jesuits
Jean de Brébeuf is 16 years old when the Jesuits opened a college in the city of Caen. The falls there to the study of philosophy.
The school is closed the following year, in 1610, but the Jesuits maintained a residence in the city. John continues under the spiritual guidance of his former teachers.
Back at the University of Caen, ends a few training philosophy and moral theology. Has not yet determined whether as a seminarian should be offered to the bishop of Bayeux or join the Society of Jesus.
In 1614 he made his vocational discernment. Is only 21 years old. It was decided by the Society of Jesus, but postponed their income family matters.
Condé sur Vire returns to direct and manage the estates of his family. Three years later, at age 24, formally requested admission to the Society of Jesus.
In early November 1617, John de Brébeuf reached Rouen on horseback.
The first impression of the Master of novices is to have before it an old-time Norman. Age is higher than others. Height is exceptional, a head taller. Meat is very lean, broad-shouldered and well proportioned. Norman is very factions, prominent nose, thick lips, high cheekbones and eyes looking straight ahead and without fear.
On November 8, ending the First probation and incorporated into the life of the community. His companions, about fifty, are smaller than him, and almost all are Normans.
Last month of spiritual exercises, and finished the questions of whether to become a priest or brother.
On November 8, 1619, pronounces perpetual vows of poverty, chastity and obedience in the Society of Jesus.
As John has done in the humanities and philosophy before joining, it is sent to the College of La Flèche with other Jesuits in its class.
It is for the College of Rouen for the experience of teaching. The College is just around the corner of the Novitiate. His students are the bottom Grammar course, all of twelve years. With great patience, taught well and cares for the conduct of those restless kids.
The following year, 1620, with the same children, John de Brébeuf began to dictate the course of Grammar Media. But very seriously ill, with recurrent fevers, coughs and violent depression. Can not, therefore, to give their classes.
The Provincial then judge recommended he be ordained priest before he died. To do so, says a priest of the College to give courses in Theology, Scripture and canon law are missing.
In September 1621, in a rough chariot travels to receive Subdiaconate Lisieux. On 18 December the same year, he received the diaconate at the Cathedral of Bayeux. On February 19, 1622 in Pontoise, ordered a priest.
Said his first Mass of the Feast of the Annunciation. It's your birthday, but being Friday, the party moves to April 4th.
With the ordination, improvement of Juan de Brébeuf is enhanced significantly. That same year he was Assistant Treasurer at the College of Rouen. The following year the Treasurer holder. It is not an easy position. The school has 600 students and still need to be new construction.
The vocation to Canada
In Rouen, John has the opportunity to meet two Franciscan priests who have returned from New France, from North America.
Norman is interested. The official request of the Franciscans to the Jesuits to be helped in the missions of Canada is no secret.
Juan is available for the first issue. The Provincial gives no security to make the trip, but leaves him enrolled in the high register of petitions.
And John is elected, almost without hope. Then feel a deep joy and immense gratitude to God. With him are three priests and two Brothers. Superior is designated as P. Carlos Lalement, director of studies at the College de Clermont in Paris. They are the last days of March 1625.
The fleet must sail to New France from the port of Dieppe in mid-April. You have to carry everything: food, clothing, mattresses, blankets, kitchen utensils, tools, medicines, sacred vessels, books ... In New France there is almost nothing.
If you forget something, they should wait next year, when the fleet made another trip. In recent days there are difficulties, but do not prevent the departure of the Jesuits.
The American world
On April 24, 1625, the fleet sailed three ships. The trip takes seven weeks.
On June 16, the yachts arrive at anchorage awaiting Moulin Baude and current and tide favorable to continue into the inlet of Tadoussac.
Jean de Brébeuf is amazed that new world. Around the boat there are many boats with rowers esnudos, reddish skin. Singing and rhythm. On the banks vie for Indian men, women and children. Almost everyone is naked. Some are painted, greasy blue, red, black or white. It's quite a hubbub of voices, deep growls, and cries of crows. The landscape is beautiful. Brébeuf was fascinated with the woods, the birds and the sun's rays on the River.
Boats back in the St. Lawrence River. Everything is getting more amazing. Five days and nights filled with beautiful deep missionaries comfort.
Finally hear the cry as expected: Quebec, Quebec! It's July 15, 1625.
But the Company of Montmorency, head of the French colony, prohibiting the landing of the Jesuits. Courageously defend the Franciscans and, after a long parley, achieve the landing and received his friends in his small Jesuit convent in Quebec.
For the Franciscans, they know all the problems with the new mission. The Company does not care Montmorency but their commercial interests. 51 residents living in Quebec French, of which 33 are employees of the Company business.
The buildings are miserable barracks, except the warehouse and the governor's house. The French are almost all Huguenots, and bad Catholics. The Algonquin Indians, who traded in Quebec, are nomadic and are unwilling to listen to Christian doctrine. No Recollect Franciscan been able to learn the language.
The Franciscans will also talk about indigenous ferrets in the wild west. Are sedentary, cultivating wheat and live in permanent houses, grouped behind a fence. They have proved friendly and seeking help to defeat their enemies the Iroquois. Perhaps there could settle a Mission.
Towards a Mission among the Hurons
Two weeks later, John de Brébeuf and a Franciscan ascend the St. Lawrence River to the country of the Hurons.
Package you need to spend a winter there, ship biscuit, food, tents and warm clothing, they need to celebrate Mass, some books, axes, knives, pots and trinkets. The most valuable is a list of words and phrases in Huron dialect, collected by the Franciscans.
For weeks back the river in canoes. In a place called Trois Rivières, traders must join the Company Montmorency to continue. In Victoria out the French have a habit of waiting for ferrets, from upstream to traffic with them.
At this place John de Brébeuf first looks on. Some wear their hair forming a sort of bun on top, and the rest of the skull is shaved. Others have greased hair, stuck to his ears and neck. Many hold fringe, two or three inches wide, alternating with pieces shaved from the forehead to the neck. All faces are smeared. They have a black stripe from ear to ear, with white circles in the eyes and mouth. The chest, abdomen, arms and back fat sparkle with color. Used shell necklaces, bracelets on her arms and belts. Some have earrings and nose.
The French in Trois Rivières decide not to allow the trip to the missionaries. A Franciscan, Fr Nicolas Viel, has been drowned last year, after having spent two winters with ferrets. The explanations for the heads ferrets certainly seem unclear. Rather, the French left in the impression of a crime.
The missionaries, however, become friendly with some bosses. A John de Brébeuf they look with some admiration for their height and bulk. I begin to call "Echon", unable to pronounce the French name of John.
The two missionaries insist on following. There is a long speech. Finally, ferrets, as a suspected, pretexts not have room in the canoes. Then, all the French return to Quebec.
The mission of the Algonquin
In Quebec, Jean de Brébeuf and his companions were engaged in the construction of the Jesuit Residence, next to the San Carlos River, about two miles from the village. And from there, begin the difficult task of evangelizing the Algonquins. Is very little they can do.
Juan obtained from P. Lalement, at the insistence of pleading, leave to join a group of Algonquins, who accepts his company in his living nomadic winter.
With them walking, sailing canoe, through forests, involved in the killing of bear and beaver. Mountain climbing, snow suffers. Shares often hunger. The hardest thing is the promiscuous living in camps, by the fire. But learn a lot, customs and words of foreign language.
Back to the Hurons
On July 14, 1626, come to Quebec from France, three other Jesuits. With one and a Franciscan priest, Juan de Brébeuf begins again the issue to the ferrets. At the end of the Victoria's found, like the previous year.
There are many bargains, many rejections, insistent and pleading. Finally, Echon embarks on a Huron canoe. Should row, carrying loads, falls through the hills canoe, climb the muddy river Ottawa.
At three weeks, arriving at Lake Nipissing Indians, allies of the Hurons. There lie two days. Continue. It is an endless succession of rapids and the water is black. Another four days sailing through treacherous channels.
Finally, arrive at the Georgia Bay on Lake Huron. Reman ninety miles and arrive at the south end. A little further up is the village of Toanché Huron, with fifteen houses.
Knees, John de Brébeuf gives thanks to God. Ferrets, women and children look at him in amazement.
Among the Hurons
During the winter, Juan learns to live like a ferret. His diet is corn, fish and meat from beaver, bear and antelope.
In June 1627, his fellow Jesuit, Fr Anne Noue, returns to Quebec. You can not adjust.
John visits one after another, the 25 villages of Huron. Gradually, he begins to love the people God has placed in its path. Learning language is without doubt the hardest.
In June 1628, also leaves the fellow Franciscan. Juan is, then, all alone.
In the third winter, work hard in a dictionary, grammar and translation of the Catechism Ledesma. No one wants to baptize in the three years.
Only a friend of Huron.
Expelled from the New World
In June 1629, he too must leave Toanché. In obedience, you are asked to return with corn. In Quebec the population starves. The British are close and need your help.
A few days after arriving, the English attack and surrender Quebec. The French population and with it, the Franciscans and the Jesuits, go to Tadoussac to return to France.
Fr John de Brébeuf and his five fellow Jesuits arrive in Calais the last days of October 1629. Delivery to the Provincial in Paris written and oral reports on New France. In every room is admired and with great curiosity, want to share their experiences among the "savages."
The Company Montmorency is replaced by the Hundred Associates, decision made by Cardinal Richelieu, according to the Recoletos and the Jesuits.
Jean de Brébeuf then enters Tertianship course under the tutelage of the famous P. Luis Lalement. Exercise month ago, and January 20, 1630 he pronounced his final vows in the Society of Jesus.
Preserving the best of its purposes. "Let me be destroyed before olunteers violating a provision of the constitution. Never rest, I never say enough. "
Returning to Canada
In 1632, Cardinal Richelieu ordered the return to New France. Has the return of part of England and has provided the organization of an empire for France.
But this time, evangelism is just under the responsibility of the Society of Jesus. Excluded and the Franciscans Recollect, with deep regret of all.
In the first issue, not including P. John de Brébeuf, and stay in France with grief. In her part of his friend Father Antonio Daniel.
But the March 23, 1633, embarked on the flagship Viceroy now Samuel Champlain. It's a return to glory and majesty.
On May 25, 1633 is back in Quebec. John de Brébeuf and runs low quick to Our Lady of the Angels to embrace, emotion, co.
In early July 1633, the ferrets come and promise Echon carry with them next summer. Iran three: the PP. Antonio Daniel, Ambrose Davost and him. In addition, six French aid them in construction.
On July 4, 1634, Brebeuf travels in the direction of the Hurons and bless the founding of Fort de Trois Rivières, the future city. And again comes the grueling trip. "We carried our canoes slopes 35 times and we have hauled at least fifty."
Setting this time Ihonatiria, where they have moved Toanché ferrets. With his friends built the house in the Mission San Jose and is given, with enthusiasm, the apostolic work.
In 1635 the Jesuits dare to baptize two elders. Visit with great sacrifice all Huron villages. Are welcome. John and Huron language can say almost anything he wants and, indeed, this is the best of its advantages. Day to day purchases and credit authority to the people.
On August 13, 1635, come to his side, PP. Francis Le Mercier and Peter Pijart. In 1636, he sent 12 young ferrets to Quebec to be educated in the Mission of Our Lady of the Angels.
On August 13, 1636, come to the Mission by Fr Charles Garnier and another Jesuit, September 11, Isaac Jogues and a young Frenchman.
But with the new missionaries, also comes the flu and making havoc in Quebec and Trois Rivières. In the Huron Mission of San José, all Jesuits and much of the French fall ill and are on the verge of death. Only John de Brébeuf escape the contagion and can focus with great sacrifice to their subjects and siblings.
Shortly thereafter, the entire Huron village and Echon spread becomes the main medical challenges sorcerers. Only in February 1637, the epidemic begins to subside.
The founding of missions
On June 8, 1637, John de Brébeuf founded Mission
Our Lady of the Conception in Ossosané, the nation's capital Huron Bear.
Ecrudece fever epidemic in July throughout Huronia. It is now suspected that the "black robes" are the cause. All missionaries are then in danger of death.
John manages the conversion of one of the leaders, Chihwatenhwa, who has cared for with great affection for fevers. But the danger of life is evident. Have multiplied the looks of hatred.
The vow of martyrdom
John writes, then vote for martyrdom, to utter every day at mass.
"I express my opinion in your presence, the Eternal Father and the Holy Spirit. In resence of your Mother and St. Joseph, before the angels, apostles and martyrs, before my father San Ignacio and San Francisco Javier. Formulate my formal vote and I dedicate it to you, Jesus. If the grace of martyrdom is being offered, for your infinite mercy, I shall pass this grace.
I make this vow for the rest of my life. To you, Lord Jesus, I offer with pleasure, my blood, my body and my soul, from this day, and I gladly offer to die for you, if you wish you died for me. "
The harvest of missionary
On February 1, 1638, John de Brébeuf was appointed head solemnly ferret. Is the greatest honor you can get a missionary.
The conversions are continuing. You have the comfort of blessing the ground first marriage Huron, Chihwatenhwa Joseph and Mary his wife.
On June 25, 1638, decided to move the Mission San Jose from Ihonatiria to Teanaustayé, the capital of the nation Huron Rope. Let there Isaac Jogues and Peter Chastellain.
A New Superior
On August 26, 1638, arrived in Huronia Fr Jerome Lalement with the office of Superior.
Immediately P. Lalement, seconded by John de Brébeuf, finally decided to organize the mission. Echon accepts ideas and throw together the foundations of the institution of "donated" in the Company. It takes many missionaries. The harvest is too large.
The laity in service will be donated works of the Company. Live as religious, but only with private vows. They have the great responsibility of construction, catechesis and all material from the missions.
The war with the Iroquois
Juan de Brébeuf was transferred to the Mission Teanaustayé, which soon divides into two. Everything seems to smile.
But the traditional war rages Hurons and Iroquois that year. In a raid Huron, Iroquois 80 taken prisoner. By law Huron, are condemned to torture and death. Echon, as head ferret has access to the councils and can turn a good number of them. They want to have, after death, happy in another way they are promised.
Conversions also, in the town of Mission, increase with the profound joy of the missionaries. In 1638, the number of Christians reached 50. In 1639, the three missions will have 96.
Mission Santa Maria
In late August 1639, P. Jerome Lalement missionaries decided to group all the Huron Mission in one place. Funda, well, the Mission Santa Maria, relatively near the ancient village of Toanché.
But soon comes to the villages ferrets smallpox epidemic. Again, the mortality is from the Indians and the danger to the missionaries. Why not die black robes? May be the cause because they want to heal the ferrets.
Mission among the Indians neutral
On November 2, 1639, Father John de Brébeuf assigned by his superior to found a mission among the Indians neutral, south of Huronia. The name "neutral" receive it because they live in peace with the Hurons and the Iroquois on the south side of Lake Erie.
Juan, a fellow Jesuit, two donated and a young ferret, moving south. On the seventh day Kanducho reach the village. The language is a dialect similar to the ferret, with marked differences in pronunciation. All neutral use tattoos. The faces, bodies, arms and legs are striped black, circles and patterns.
Jean de Brébeuf Begin tour of all the villages. But it is not well received. In all there is prevention against him. Neutral chiefs believe that the missionary can come with fever. Some ferrets enemies reported the rumors.
The mission employs a year and four months. It is a difficult time. Supports dangers and threats and not getting conversions. Finally, at the beginning of March 1641, John and his partner embark on a return to Santa Maria.
But while crossing a stream, slips and strikes a blow against the ice. With great difficulty, must admit he has broken his left collarbone.
On 19 March, with great difficulty, the two Jesuits arrived in Santa Maria to celebrate Mass immediately, in honor of the patron saint of the Mission.
A break in Quebec
Fr Lalement Jerome decides to send John de Brébeuf to the city of Quebec, with the boats that travel in the month of May. The broken collarbone can not be treated in the Mission and the pains of Brébeuf seem very intense. After seven consecutive years among the Hurons, you can regain your strength in Quebec.
With deep sorrow in Santa Maria, you are fired. We all appreciate it, priests, brothers, donated and workers. They want him deeply, for his humility, inexhaustible patience, charity and indomitable courage.
On June 20, 1641, the canoes reach Trois Rivières, with admiration of all, because of Iroquois raids around the city. A few days later, the missionaries in Quebec.
John visit, fascinated, the new mission of the Jesuits in the village of Algonquin Sillery Christians. Shortly thereafter, she toured the hospital founded by the Sisters of Dieppe and Ursuline College for girls Algonquin.
John was appointed Superior of Sillery. From there, always restless, participates in the founding of the city of Montreal and supports, with all means at its disposal, to his beloved mission among the Hurons.
A pain that tears
In July 1642, received in Trois Rivières to Isaac Jogues accompanying ferrets in the annual travel trade. In August, John decides the fate of donated and skillful young surgeon René Goupil and Isaac mate.
More than usual, suffers with the trip of his friends because he wanted to join them. But his decision to be guided by obedience peace returns.
On the evening of that day, John knows, with horror, that Isaac, René and ferrets have fallen into the hands Iroquois. Desgarrársele Feel your heart, but once again must fulfill the will of God. Cry like a man and instructs his friends.
Shortly after John baptized in Quebec to six ferrets, all young. Tirelessly continues his work in Sillery and Trois Rivières.
On June 12, 1643, Trois Rivières reach two ferrets.
With emotion, John de Brébeuf recognizes in these tortured faces, Joseph and Peter, two brothers Chihwatenhwa. Belong to the group of prisoners captured by the Iroquois in last August.
They tell the storm, were passed by fire, torn apart and lives of slavery during the winter. Also recount the death of René Goupil. John weeps almost inconsolable.
On August 15, Trois Rivières reach several Iroquois canoes. The French allow a single berth and a single Iroquois. This delivered a letter to John Isaac, in Latin, French and Huron:
"This is the fourth letter I write since I've been to the Iroquois. The Dutch have tried to rescue us, but to no avail. I am resolved to stay here until God wants it. I have no escape, even if the chance comes to me do it. "
Another year of anguish
A year John de Brébeuf should stay in Quebec City and Trois Rivières Sillary.
On April 27, 1644, after preparing it, dismisses the issue of Father Francis Bressani, a young Italian Jesuit, with its six ferrets and a donated Christian French.
Two weeks later, on May 14, received the news with deep sorrow that the ferrets have perished and that the P. Bressani is a slave to the Iroquois.
Then, John de Brébeuf is called to Quebec for conferences with the Governor and P. Vimont, the Jesuit Superior of New France. It is urgent to make peace with the Iroquois. Otherwise, all efforts made with the Algonquins, Hurons and neutral may be lost.
An incredible surprise
In June 1644, the fleet arrives in Quebec comes from France. The surprise of John is great when you descend from sailing ships to their dear friend Isaac Jogues. Before asking any questions merge into a hug.
Isaac tells his friends the terrible ordeal. The Iroquois have been very hard indeed. The Jesuits watch, amazed, his hands mutilated and peace of his friend. Was able to escape with the help of the Dutch.
He came to France for Christmas. He obtained permission to return. Now we are happy again.
In July, John and his friend Isaac travel together to Trois Rivières. A few days later, come to the city twelve Huron canoes, in P. Pedro Pijart and some donated.
Ferrets declare that they come to trade but travel in the fight against the Iroquois warrior. Jean de Brébeuf thinks he sees, then, a new opportunity for him. Fr Pijart can stay in Trois Rivières and he go back to the Huron country.
He hurries and goes to Quebec to seek the approval of Fr Vimont. This seat and gives the latest documents came from France. Fr Jerome Lalement must return to Quebec, it is the new superior of the Mission of New France. Fr Paul Raguenau Superior has been designated as the Huron Mission. Jean de Brébeuf will be responsible for communicating changes.
For the third time in Huronia
Quebec Juan travels, happy with his third destination to ferrets. With him are two other young missionaries, Natal Leonardo Chabanel and Garreau.
On September 7, 1644 arrived in Santa Maria, after 30 days of travel. A Echon the Hurons and the Jesuits, which are noisily. First, the cries of surprise, then come the laughter and hugs. In the chapel of logs, all the vibrant chant Te Deum of thanksgiving.
Newcomers meet the myriad of questions. Yes, the journey has been easy. No, have not seen the Iroquois. Isaac Jogues is in Quebec. Has returned with traces of his tortures.
All rejoice. As a good Jesuit, accept changes in Higher confident. Fr Lalement Jerome is a true father to all, much loved, and were pleased to have him as principal in Quebec Superior. From there to ensure dedication to the Huron Mission. Fr Paul Raguenau Brébeuf is much like and is like its shadow. It is a good religious, intelligent and a charity at all costs. "Aondechate" as they call it is another Echon ferrets.
The new Santa Maria Mission
The community is now sixteen Jesuits. Of these, fourteen are priests and two brothers. Eleven have also donated.
Santa Maria has made significant progress in the three-year absence from Brébeuf. It is now almost a fortress, with fences to river. In the grounds are five buildings, workshops and warehouses.
The community house has two floors, two fireplaces, twelve rooms, lounge, dining room and kitchen. The Chapel is 15 feet long and 8 wide, a stone altar, images carved by the Hurons, beautiful ornaments and paintings. There is a house for donated, and one for guests. Within the enclosure is a water well, a forge, and pens for chickens and pigs.
Jean de Brébeuf not conceal his surprise. With deep joy, look at the buildings next to the Mission Chapel of the Hurons, the small hospital and cemetery. In the field is planted.
Across the country the news spreads of the return of Echon. Ferrets come to Santa Maria, from all the settlements, in Ossossané and Teanaustayé and beyond. Ossossané One says, "Soon all our village will be Christian."
Juan is intended to Santa Maria. From there on long trips, you must meet the Huron village of Santa Ana, San Luis, San Dionisio, San Juan and San Francisco Javier.
In September 1645, to the surprise and joy of Juan and all the inhabitants of Santa Maria, arrives in a canoe P. Francis Bressani.
Nothing was known of him since he was captured by the Iroquois in April last year. The account of his torture and how it was rescued by the Dutch and sent them to France in October.
Echon viewed with pain the scars that cover the neck, face, arms, legs and hands of Father Francisco. Of these, the Iroquois some fingers amputated and others chewed, leaving only stumps. John thinks that Father Francisco is a martyr and pray deeply to deserve equal suffering and, God willing, a bloody death.
In November, John makes a six-day trip, paddling with a donated, to visit a group of ferrets who have fled beyond Lake Nipissing. On his return he continued his travels between the towns ferrets.
News of his friend Isaac Jogues
In one village, John learns of the deaths of Isaac Jogues and John de La Lande at the hands of the Iroquois Mohawks. For he is the saddest news of his life. Grief-stricken, crying bitterly for his two friends and also by the Mohawk Iroquois.
He admires the work of Isaac Jogues. Not faint, he initiated the peace efforts with the Onondaga, the Cayuga and Oneida, the three core nations of the Iroquois. The Senecas refused. Now also the Mohawks are relentless war against ferrets.
The martyrdom of Daniel Antonio
In September 1647, P. Paul Raguenau, the Superior of the Huron Mission, missionaries decided to expand the horizons towards Petuns, the Algonquins of the north and back to neutral. Juan is in Santa Maria, with their own villages Huron.
In early June 1648, has the consolation of receiving at Mission Santa Maria to P. Antonio Daniel. Ferrets Antwen call. He has come to do, in the main house of the mission, the Spiritual Exercises of the year. With his friend make new plans.
Antonio Daniel returns to his post Teanaustayé on 2 July. The Iroquois attacked the village on day 4, burn and kill. The news of the martyrdom of his friend John arrives the same day. Teanaustayé runs and finds only ashes.
In 1649, besides the towns ferrets in their care, John
charge of the village of San Ignacio to replace the destroyed village of Teanaustayé, about 8 miles from Santa Maria.
The new town was built under the direction of John. Receives as a companion to Father Gabriel Lalement missionary just arrived the previous year.
Gabriel, now called Atironta, through all the villages. In all gets a good spiritual harvest.
Again, the Iroquois
On the morning of Monday, March 15, 1649, John de Brébeuf and Gabriel Lalement leave from Santa Maria to the usual course of their missions.
Spend the day in San Luis, located 4 kilometers, with its four ferrets. Housed in the small cabin. Shortly after dawn, day 16, say their Masses. That same day they plan to go to the village of San Ignacio, an additional 4 miles away.
At six o'clock, when they are finishing Thanksgiving, they are surprised by the screaming of the ferret: "The Iroquois are in San Ignacio! The Iroquois are slaughtering ferrets San Ignacio!".
Jean thinks, horrified take not appear in this town of San Luis.
Overcoming the noise of men and the desperate cries of women and children, prepare the defense. The men go to the palisades and women with children are forced to flee into the forest.
After both Echon and Atironta, are at the palisades. The Huron chief urges them to flee with women. Echon answers
that his job is there to care for the warriors.
Iroquois soon reach the fence. And arrows whistling sound of musket shots Iroquois. The first attack is rejected. In a second spike, the village is captured.
The prisoners are strongly tied. A shoving the Iroquois force them to leave the village. The group as a herd. Plunder and kill. Howling in frenzied dance, celebrate the victory.
Then burn the buildings. Prisoners are forced to sing and, jogging exhausting, take them to San Ignacio.
In the forest, the Iroquois tear their clothing and Atironta Echon. Leave them naked as they go.
On reaching the village of San Ignacio, the Iroquois are placed in two parallel rows, forcing the prisoners to pass between them. With sticks and batons, screaming, beat them until they reach the other end. Echon, his body bruised, she is finally huddled with friends ferrets.
John and Gabriel, in blades, do their prayers and offerings. Echon says he probably Atironta, Gabriel, will be alive and will be taken to the Iroquois villages as a slave.
In this case, he advises, must flee, like Isaac and P. Francis Bressani.
To each other can be heard in confession and absolve each other.
Soon after they are forced to stand. They were ordered to dance and sing the song of death.
In dance, jump on Echon Iroquois. A bite will break the bones of the hands. Nail tear off and chew your fingers. Drag him to a post. The tie and into the fire starts.
Echon know the code of the Iroquois. Know what you expect. So, ask God for strength to not express either fear or utter complaints. As they burn, do not cry.
Reza and consoles ferrets die with him. John shouts: "Jesus, have mercy. "Ferrets answer:
"Echon, pray for us."
The Iroquois Echon squeezing shut out a lighted torch in your mouth. Then they start to burn a whole. Still alive, they throw over the head and injuries boiling water, as a mockery of baptism. "Echon, baptize you, so you can
be happy. "
With great difficulty, Echon says: "Jesus, have mercy". Huron language and adds"Jesus taiteur. One of the Iroquois takes her nose and starts with a slash. Another man hurt his upper lip, pull the tongue and cut off a piece. A third will burn your mouth with a lighted stick.
Death This is the skull of St. Jean de Brebeuf
Then the huge body of Echon, burning the ties, falls into the coals. Her eyes still open, are emptied with a lighted torch. It out of the fire. Estava yet. They put their bodies on a stage.
Iroquois chief, with his sharp knife, rips the scalp. That's his trophy. After sinking his long knife of war on the side, and rips the heart. Sucks the blood, handle, and eat it greedily.
The other Iroquois chiefs also eat slices of roast meat and drink blood. A download manager ax on the head and two. Then burn it all.
It's four in the afternoon of March 16, 1649. Atironta, in prayer, waiting their turn.
Jean de Brébeuf was canonized on June 26, 1930, in conjunction with St. Isaac Jogues, St. Rene Goupil, St. John de La Lande, San Antonio Daniel, Lalement San Gabriel, San Carlos San Natal Garnier and Chabanel.
They are all patrons of the evangelization of North America
References and courtesy of: Catholic.Net
Monday, October 18, 2010
Brief notes on the Letters of St. Paul are the only news that Sacred Scripture presents on St. Luke, the solicitous good news researcher and author of the third Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles. For his travel notes, ie the pages of Acts in which St. Luke speaks in first person, we can rebuild part of his missionary activity. He was a companion and disciple of the apostles. The historian Eusebius says that: "... had sex with all the apostles, and was very attentive. " This sensitivity and his availability for others testifies the same St. Paul, joined him great friendship. In the letter to the Colossians: "Luke greet you, beloved physician ...".
We trace the medical profession to assume that he spent much time studying. Their cultural background is also seen by the style of his books, his Gospel is written in simple Greek, clean and beautiful, rich in terms that the other three evangelists do not have. You have to make another account on his Gospel, than the fact stylistic and historiography: Luke is the evangelist who better than some of us painted the human face of the Redeemer, his gentleness, his attentions to the poor and the marginalized, women and the repentant sinners. It is the biographer of the Virgin Mary and Jesus' childhood. Is the evangelist of Christmas. The Acts of the Apostles and the third Gospel make us see the temperament of San Lucas, conciliatory man, discreet, self-possessed, smooth or silent expressions that could have hurt a president, provided that this does not prejudice the historical truth.
By disclosing the innermost secrets of the Annunciation, the Visitation, Christmas, it makes us understand who personally knew the Virgin. Some exegetes forward the hypothesis that it was the Virgin Mary herself who transcribed the hymn Magnificat, she rose to God in a moment of exultation in the encounter with Elizabeth. In fact, Luke tells us that made a lot of research and sought information on the life of Jesus with those who were eyewitnesses.
A letter from the second century, the Prologue to the Gospel of Luke antimarcionista, synthesizes biography as follows: "Luke, a Syrian of Antioch, a medical doctor, a disciple of the apostles and later followed Paul until his confession (martyrdom .) He served the Lord wholeheartedly, never married or had children. He died at the age of 84 years in Boeotia, full of the Holy Ghost. " Recent studies agree with this version.
Sunday, October 17, 2010
The doors open slowly. Bodies like ghosts walk in the sand. Squinting eyes that used to live in the shadows of the dungeon, suddenly receive sunlight. The roar of the crowd ends up waking. Move aimlessly, some holding hands, others alone and sad eyes reflecting fear and bewilderment. The trumpets sound. String sounds are heard everywhere and the center of the earth bloodthirsty beasts emerging: Panthers, African lions, hyenas. The party has begun! Circus Maximus is offered to the Romans the spectacle of death to hundreds, perhaps thousands of Christians, witnesses of their faith in Christ. Are the times of Emperor Trajan, back in the years 98 to 117 of our era when being a Christian meant to give one's life.
Puddles of blood flood the place, mangled and dismembered members everywhere, a plaintive cry and suffering of someone who has survived. The night has come and blanket the pines and cypresses of the Roman hills. And among the moans and groans are heard vibrating words of an old, dead and mangled by a lion. These are words that are engraved in the hearts of the faithful, in the distant past Antioch. Ignacio is the second successor of Peter as bishop of Antioch. "Please, brothers, I do not deny yourselves of this life, do not wish to die ... let light can contemplate, then I am truly a man. Let me imitate the passion of my God. "
Ignatius of Antioch knew that real life was that which awaited him after death, where he could contemplate face to face with the face of Christ, "let the light to contemplate." He knew that to get to watch that light was necessary to witness the light in this world no matter the trials and suffering as necessary. Trials and suffering that brought dignity as soldiers did not have mercy on him during his long and arduous journey from Antioch to Rome. Trial and suffering that crystallized with the shedding of his blood and he saw as a necessity: "I am wheat of Christ, I will be crushed by the teeth of beasts to become pure and holy bread."
A martyr is nothing far from us that today we are called to be martyrs bloodless Catholics, ie martyrs shed their blood not physical, but the blood of fidelity to the commandments of the Church. It is the martyrdom of everyday life, of which as Ignacio proclaim their everyday example is "not right to do what God's law qualifies as evil to draw some good." Of those who love both Christ and the Church "who respect his commandments, even in the most serious and prefer his own death rather than betray those commandments." (Cf. Veritatis Splendor, n. 90-91)
They are the martyrs who quietly know they are Catholic to the end: the wife to the "horror" to inform the husband that she was pregnant again in adverse economic circumstances, knowing how to be brave and consistent with the reality of Catholic and never think As abortion as the "easier and safer" to avoid problems with her husband. Young people who have an impeccable life of chastity and purity, keeping their bodies clean until marriage, "suffering" the martyrdom of overwhelming pressure from the media and invite friends to sex as a fun pastime, "safe, with no serious consequences. " Businessmen and workers who face the possibility of a business "not so clean" or "make a small trap pattern" prefer to continue with pride and head up the commandment which many old and outdated, "You shall not kill ". And so we have an example, an endless stream of martyrs of the XXI century are presented every day as St. Ignatius of Antioch, with the new beasts of the Circus Maximus and also hear every day, the words he heard the last Ignatius lion's roar, "Come unto me, blessed of my Father ... today will be with me in Paradise. "
Saturday, October 16, 2010
Saint Gerard Majella is known as a Thaumaturge, a Saint who works miracles not just occasionally, but as a matter of course. It has been said that God raises up not more than one every century. He was born in Italy at Muro Lucano, south of Naples, in 1726. As a child of five, when he would go to pray before a statue of the Virgin with her Child, the Infant Jesus regularly descended to give him a little white bun. He took it home and naively told his mother, when she asked him, where he obtained it. His sister was sent to the church to observe in secret, and saw the miracle for herself. He wanted very much to receive Holy Communion at the age of seven and went to the Communion railing one day with the others; but the priest, seeing his age, passed him up; and he went back to his place in tears. The following night, Saint Michael the Archangel brought him the Communion he so much desired.
As he grew older, when anyone spoke to him about marriage, he would answer: “The Madonna has ravished my heart, and I have made Her a present of it.” He desired to enter religion, but his health was unstable as a result of the mortifications he had constantly practiced as a young man. He had acquired a reputation of sanctity, and finally, when he was 23 years old, he obtained the aid of some missionaries to second his request, and was admitted as a Coadjutor of the newly founded Congregation of Redemptorists, in 1749.
He showed himself to be a model of every virtue and he did the work of four, still finding time to take on himself that of others. He would say: “Let me do it, I am younger, take a rest.” He made the heroic vow of always choosing what appeared to him most perfect. He was perfectly obedient to his superior’s wishes, even when not expressed; and one day, to demonstrate this to a visiting authority who required a proof, his immediate Superior sent him out, saying: “I will tell him interiorly to return; he needs no other command than this.” Soon the Brother knocked on the door once more and said: “You sent for me to come back?” He conducted a group of students on a nine-day pilgrimage to Mount Gargano, where the Archangel Michael had appeared. They had very little money for the trip, and when they arrived at the site, there was none left. Gerard went before the tabernacle and told Our Lord that it was His responsibility to take care of the little group. He had been observed in the church by a religious, who invited the Saint and his companions to lodge in his residence. When the party was ready to start home again, Gerard prayed once more, and immediately someone appeared and gave him a roll of bills.
The most famous of Saint Gerard’s miracles occurred when a mason fell from a scaffolding during the construction of a building. Gerard had been forbidden by his Superior to work any more miracles without permission. He stopped the man in mid-air, telling him to wait until he had obtained permission to save him. He received it, and the man descended gently to the ground. When a plague broke out, he had the gift of bilocation; he was seen in more than one house at the same time, assisting the sick. Not a page of his life, it is said, was without prodigies, all tending to the glory of God and motivated by prodigious charity towards his neighbor. He was condemned falsely at one time, as a result of a connivance between two individuals; the Superior General, Saint Alphonsus Liguori himself, who did not know Gerard personally, was induced to believe the black calumny. Later the guilty ones wrote him a letter confessing their fault, and Gerard, who had said nothing at all when relegated into solitude, was asked why he had not said he was innocent. He replied that the Rule required that the religious not defend themselves.
He died in 1755 at the age of 29 years, was beatified in 1893 by Pope Leo XIII and canonized in 1904 by Saint Pius X.
Friday, October 15, 2010
Born in 1515 in Avila, Teresa de Cepeda y Ahumada began at forty years the task of reforming the Carmelite Order by its primitive rule, guided by God through mystical conferences, and with the help of San Juan de la Cruz (who in turn amended the male branch of the Order, the Discalced Carmelites separated from the shoes). It was a mission almost unbelievable for a frail woman like yours: from the monastery of San Jose, outside the walls of Avila, first reformed Carmelite convent for her, left with the burden of the treasures of His Castle Inside, in all directions of Spain and held numerous foundations, raising too many grievances, to the extent that temporarily left him permission to draw other reforms and to establish new cases.
Mystical teacher and director of consciences, was to epistolary contacts with King Philip II of Spain and the most illustrious figures of his time, but as a practical woman took care of things monastery minimum and never neglected the economic side, because as she herself said: "Teresa, without the grace of God, is a poor woman, with the grace of God, a force, with the grace of God and a lot of money, power." At the request of the confessor, Teresa wrote the story of his life, a book of confessions from the most sincere and impressive. In the introduction makes this observation: "I would have liked, and they ordered me to write my way of prayer and the graces that the Lord gave me, I would have also allowed detailed and clearly tell my great sins. It is the story of a struggling soul up passionately, without success, at first. " Thus, from the human standpoint, Teresa is a figure close, which is presented as a creature of flesh and blood, the opposite of idealistic representation angelic Bernini.
From childhood he had shown a exuberant temperament (at age seven he ran away from home to seek martyrdom in Africa), and a contrasting trend to the mystical life and practical activities, organizational. Twice he fell seriously ill. During the illness began to live some deep mystical experiences that transformed his inner life, giving the perception of the presence of God and the experience of mystical phenomena that she later described in his books: "The road to perfection", "Thoughts the love of God "and" The Interior Castle. "
He died in Alba de Tormes on the night of October 14, 1582, and in 1622 was proclaimed a saint. On September 27, 1970 Paul VI proclaimed Doctor of the Church.
Thursday, October 14, 2010
Angadrisma was a seventh century abbess venerated as a saint. A cousin to Bishop Saint Lambert of Lyons, she was educated at Thérouanne by Lambert and Saint Audomare.
Although she wished to become a nun, she was promised in an arranged marriage to Saint Ansbert of Chaussy. Tradition states that Angadrisma, wishing for a way out, prayed fervently and was stricken with leprosy. She was cured when she was allowed to become a nun and received the veil from Saint Ouen, archbishop of Rouen.
She became abbess of the Benedictine convent of Oroër-des-Vierges, near Beauvais.
Wednesday, October 13, 2010
Edward, St. Edward's grandson called the Martyr, was born in 1004 in Islip, near Oxford. His father was King Ethelred II, called the discouraged. While still a child, had to take the path of exile and lived from 1014 to 1041 in Normandy with relatives of his mother.
It is said that vowed to go on pilgrimage to Rome if the Divine Providence led him back to his homeland. When this happened, Eduardo wanted to fulfill faithfully the vote, but the pope dispensed. The money you would spend on the trip gave to the poor and part of it was devoted to the restoration of the monastery in West London (West Minster, Westminster today.)
Despite the political failures of their government, Edward King of England from 1043 to 1066, left a vivid memory in his hometown. The reasons for this devotion, which continued through the centuries, are to be found not only in some wise administrative measures such as the abolition of a heavy military duty that afflicted the entire nation but especially in its mild, generous (never a contempt or a word of reproach or a sign of anger or even the most humble subjects) and in his private life.
A year after his coronation was married to Edith Godwin highly cultured daughter of his most terrible enemy of Baron Godwin of Wessex.
It had been a clever political move of his father, because he hoped that Eduardo, whom they called "the Confessor", entrusted with the administration of the government to engage more freely to prayer and meditation
The plan, too subtle, only succeeded in part because at 1051 the Baron was banished and the queen was imprisoned in a convent. But it was only a parenthesis, because the agreement between Edward and the queen was very deep, to the point that, according to biographers, the two had made a vow of virginity agreement.
The solemn opening of the famous choir of the Monastery of Westminster, which he had funded, was held on December 28, 1065. But the king was seriously ill.
He died on January 5, 1066 and was buried in the abbey church recently restored. Soon there were many pilgrimages to his grave. In recognition of 1102 his body was found incorrupt and 17 February L161 Pope Alexander III as included in the list of saints. The day of his feast coincides with the date on which Thomas Bechet solemnly moved his relics to the same church choir.
Today, at a distance of nearly ten centuries, England still calls his Crown of St. Edward. "
It was not easy right? Now I remember that wonderful Castilian proverb that says: "Every day is good to praise God."
Tuesday, October 12, 2010
He was born in Worms, the son of Hugo, count of Worms. He was educated in the school of Worms Cathedral and at the Benedictine Gorze Abbey in Lorraine. He returned to Worms Cathedral to be provost and was ordained a priest in 994.
In the same year Otto III appointed him chancellor for Italy and four years later also for Germany, a position which he held until Otto's death on 23 January 1002. Heribert accompanied Otto to Rome in 996 and again in 997, and was still in Italy when he was elected Archbishop of Cologne. At Benevento he received investiture and the pallium from Pope Sylvester II on 9 July 999, and on the following Christmas Day he was consecrated at Cologne.
In 1002, he was present at the death-bed of the emperor at Paterno. While returning to Germany with the emperor's remains and the imperial insignia, he was held captive for some time by the future Henry II, whose candidacy he at first opposed, but whom he served faithfully subsequently.
ShrineIn 1003 Heribert founded the Abbey of Deutz on the Rhine, at a strongpoint that controlled the western entry to the city of Cologne; when he died in Cologne on March 16, 1021, he was buried in his abbey church.
In the same year Otto III appointed him chancellor for Italy and four years later also for Germany, a position which he held until Otto's death on 23 January 1002. Heribert accompanied Otto to Rome in 996 and again in 997, and was still in Italy when he was elected Archbishop of Cologne. At Benevento he received investiture and the pallium from Pope Sylvester II on 9 July 999, and on the following Christmas Day he was consecrated at Cologne.
In 1002, he was present at the death-bed of the emperor at Paterno. While returning to Germany with the emperor's remains and the imperial insignia, he was held captive for some time by the future Henry II, whose candidacy he at first opposed, but whom he served faithfully subsequently.
ShrineIn 1003 Heribert founded the Abbey of Deutz on the Rhine, at a strongpoint that controlled the western entry to the city of Cologne; when he died in Cologne on March 16, 1021, he was buried in his abbey church.
Monday, October 11, 2010
Born into a large peasant family, with deep Christian roots. Soon entered the seminary, where he professed the Rule of the Secular Franciscan Order. Ordained priest, he worked in his diocese until, in 1921, he entered the service of the Holy See. In 1958 he was elected Pope, and their human and Christian qualities earned him the name "good pope." John Paul II beatified him in 2000 and established that his feast is celebrated on 11 October.
Born on November 25, 1881 in Sotto il Monte, diocese and province of Bergamo (Italy). That same day he was baptized with the name of Angelo Giuseppe. It was the fourth of thirteen children. His family lived on the farm work. Family life Roncalli was patriarchal. Zaveri Her uncle, godfather, he attributed his first and fundamental religious training. The religious climate of the family and parish life earnest, were the first and fundamental school of Christian life, which marked the spiritual physiognomy of Angelo Roncalli.
Received confirmation and first communion in 1889 and in 1892 entered the seminary in Bergamo, where he studied until the second year of theology. There he began writing his spiritual notes, would write to the end of their days and have been collected in the Journal of the soul. " On March 1, 1896 the spiritual director of the seminary of Bergamo admitted in the Secular Franciscan Order, whose professed Rule May 23, 1897.
From 1901 to 1905 he was a student of the Pontifical Roman Seminary, thanks to a grant from the diocese of Bergamo. At this time was also a year of military service. He was ordained on August 10, 1904, in Rome. In 1905 he was appointed secretary of the new bishop of Bergamo, Giacomo Maria Bishop Radini Tedeschi. He held this post until 1914, accompanying the bishop in the pastoral visits and working on multiple initiatives apostolic synod, the diocesan newspaper editorial, pilgrimages, social work. At the same time was a professor of history, patristic, and apologetic in the seminar, assistant women's Catholic Action, a partner in the Catholic newspaper of Bergamo and much sought after speaker for his eloquence elegant, profound and effective.
In those years, also delved into the study of three pastors: St Charles Borromeo (who published the Proceedings of the apostolic visit made to the diocese of Bergamo in 1575), St. Francis de Sales and then Blessed Gregory Barbarigo. After the death of Bishop Radini Tedeschi in 1914, Don Angelo continued his priestly ministry dedicated to teaching at the seminary and the apostolate, especially among members of Catholic associations.
In 1915, when Italy entered the war, was called as a medical sergeant and appointed military chaplain wounded soldiers returning from the front. At the end of the war gave the "House of student" and worked in pastoral care of students. In 1919 he was appointed spiritual director of the seminar.
In 1921 started the second half of the life of Don Angelo Roncalli, dedicated to serving the Holy See. Called to Rome by Benedict XV for Italy as president of the Central Council of the Pontifical Society for the Propagation of the Faith, traveled many dioceses of Italy organized missions circles. In 1925 Pius XI named him Apostolic Visitor to Bulgaria and was elevated to the episcopacy and assigned the titular see of Areopoli. His episcopal motto, a program that accompanied him throughout life, was "Obedience and Peace".
After his episcopal ordination, which took place on March 19, 1925 in Rome, began his ministry in Bulgaria, where he remained until 1935. Visited Catholic communities and cultivated friendly relations with other Christian communities. Acted with great concern and charity, relieving the suffering caused by the earthquake of 1928. Endured in silence the misunderstandings and difficulties of a ministry marked by pastoral tactics of small steps. Strengthened their trust in Jesus crucified and its delivery to him.
In 1935 he was appointed apostolic delegate to Turkey and Greece. It was a vast field. The Catholic Church had an active presence in many areas of the young republic, which was being renovated and organizing. Archbishop Roncalli worked intensely to serve Catholics and noted for its dialogue and friendly spirit with the Orthodox and Muslims. At the outbreak of World War II was in Greece that was devastated by the fighting. He tried to give news about prisoners of war and saved many Jews with the "transit visa" of the apostolic delegation. In December 1944 Pius XII appointed him Apostolic Nuncio in Paris.
During the last months of World War, and peace restored, helped prisoners of war and worked in the normalization of ecclesiastical life in France. He visited the great shrines in France and participated in festivals and religious events more meaningful. He was an attentive observer, cautious and confident in the new pastoral initiatives of bishops and clergy of France. Always distinguished by his search for Gospel simplicity, even the most intricate diplomatic affairs. He tried to act as a priest in all situations. Driven by a sincere piety, he spent long time each day to prayer and meditation.
In 1953 he was made a cardinal and sent to Venice as Patriarch. It was a wise and resolute minister, following the example of saints who had always revered like St. Lorenzo Giustiniani, first Patriarch of Venice.
After the death of Pius XII, was elected Pope on October 28, 1958, and took the name John XXIII. His pontificate, which lasted less than five years, presented the world as a true image of the Good Shepherd. Gentle and friendly, enterprising and brave, simple, friendly, Christian practice works of mercy and spiritual body, visiting the imprisoned and the sick, welcoming people of all nations and beliefs, and cultivating an exquisite sense of paternity for all. His teaching, especially his encyclical "Pacem in Terris" and "Mater et Magistra", was greatly appreciated.
Convoked the Roman Synod, established a Commission for the revision of the Code of Canon Law and convened the Second Vatican Council. He visited many parishes in his diocese of Rome, especially those of the new neighborhoods. People saw in him a reflection of the goodness of God and called him "the Pope of goodness." I held a deep spirit of prayer. Your initiator of a great renewal in the Church, he radiated peace of one who trusts in the Lord always. He died the evening of June 3, 1963.
John Paul II beatified him on September 3, 2000, and established that his feast is celebrated on October 11, remembering well that John XXIII opened the Second Vatican Council solemnly on 11 October 1962. This a Picture of the incorrupt body of Pope John XXIII.
Sunday, October 10, 2010
St. Thomas of Villanova, O.S.A. (born Tomás García Martínez, Ciudad Real, 1488 - died Valencia, September 8, 1555), was a preacher, ascetic, writer and Spanish friar of the Order of Saint Augustine.
Thomas grew up and was educated in Villanueva de los Infantes, in the province of Ciudad Real, Spain, where his parents owned a prosperous estate; therefore the name Thomas of Villanueva. Part of the original house still stands, with a coat of arms in the corner, beside a family chapel. In spite of his family's wealth, as a young boy he often went about naked because he had given his clothing to the poor.
Even though he studied Arts and Theology at the University of Alcalá de Henares and became a professor there, he decided to enter the Augustinian order in Salamanca in 1516, and in 1518 was ordained a priest. Within the order, he held the positions of prior of the friary, General Visitor, and Provincial Prior for Andalusia and Castile. He was also a professor at the university and counsellor and confessor to the Spanish King and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.
He was well known for his great personal austerity (he sold the straw mattress on which he slept in order to give money to the poor) and for his continual and untiring charitable efforts, especially towards orphans, poor women without a dowry, and the sick. He possessed, however, an intelligent notion of charity, so that while he was very charitable, he sought to obtain definitive and structural solutions to the problem of poverty; for example, giving work to the poor, thereby making his charity bear fruit. "Charity is not just giving, rather removing the need of those who receive charity and liberating them from it when possible," he wrote.
In 1533, he sent out the first Augustinian friars to arrive in Mexico. He began to experience mystical ecstasies during Mass and when reading the psalms. Charles V offered him the post of Archbishop of Granada but he would not accept it. In 1544 he was nominated as Archbishop of Valencia but he continued to refuse the position until ordered to accept by his superior. There, aided by his assistant bishop, Juan Segriá, he put in order a diocese that for a century had not had direct pastoral government. He organized a special college for Moorish converts, and in particular an effective plan for social assistance, welfare, and charity.
He composed beautiful sermons, among which stands out the Sermon on the Love of God, one of the great examples of sacred oratory of the 16th century. He enjoyed great fame as a preacher, with a plain and simple style. Charles V, upon hearing him preach, exclaimed, "This monsignor can move even the stones!", and he brought about public conversions. Some of his sermons attacked the cruelty of bullfighting. He also had a great devotion to the Virgin Mary, whose heart he compared to the burning bush that is never consumed. In 1547 he ordained as a priest the future Saint Luis Beltrán. He died in 1555 of angina at the age of 67. He was canonized by Pope Alexander VII on November 1, 1658. His liturgical feast day is celebrated on September 22.
He is the author of various Tracts, among which is included the Soliloquy between God and the soul, on the topic of communion. Francisco de Quevedo wrote his biography. His complete writings were published in six volumes as Opera omnia, in Manila in 1881.
He is the namesake and patron saint of Villanova University, near Philadelphia (USA), which was founded and is administered by the friars of his order, Universidad Católica de Santo Tomás de Villanueva in Havana (Cuba), St. Thomas University in Miami Gardens, Florida, (USA)and Villanova College, a catholic school for boys located in Brisbane, Australia.
Saturday, October 9, 2010
Bishop of Paris, and martyr. Born in Italy, nothing is definitely known of the time or place, or of his early life. His feast is kept on 9 October. He is usually represented with his head in his hands because, according to the legend, after his execution the corpse rose again and carried the head for some distance. That, however, while still very young he was distinguished for hisvirtuous life, knowledge of sacred things, and firm faith, is proved by the fact that Pope Fabian (236-250) sent him with some other missionary bishops to Gaul on a difficult mission. The Church of Gaul had suffered terribly under the persecution of the Emperor Decius and the new messengers of Faith were to endeavour to restore it to its former flourishing condition. Denis with his inseparable companions, the priest Rusticus and the deacon Eleutherius, arrived in the neighbourhood of the present city of Paris and settled on the island in the Seine. The earliest document giving an account of his labours and of his martyrdom (Passio SS. Dionsyii, Rustici et Eleutherii), dating from the end of the sixth or the beginning of the seventh century and wrongly attributed to the poet Venantius Fortunatus, is interwoven with much legend, from which, however, the following facts can be gleaned.
On the island in the Seine Denis built a church and provided for a regular solemnization of the Divine service. His fearless and indefatigable preaching of the Gospel led to countless conversions. This aroused the envy, anger and hatred of the heathen priests. They incited the populace against the strangers and importuned the governor Fescenninus Sisinnius to put a stop by force to the new teaching. Denis with his two companions were seized and as they persevered in their faith were beheaded (about 275) after many tortures. Later accounts give a detailed description of the confessors' sufferings. They were scourged, imprisoned, racked, thrown to wild beasts, burnt at the stake, and finally beheaded. Gregory of Tours simply states: "Beatus Dionysius Parisiorum episcopus diversis pro Christi nomine adfectus poenis praesentem vitam gladio immente finivit" (Hist. Franc. I, 30). The bodies of the three holy martyrs received an honourable burial through the efforts of a pious matron named Catulla and a small shrine was erected over their graves. This was later on replaced by a beautiful basilica (egregium templum) which Venantius celebrated in verse (Carm. I, ii).
From the reign of King Dagobert (622-638) the church and the Benedictine monastery attached to it were more and more beautifully adorned; the veneration of St. Denis became by degrees a national devotion, rulers and princes vying with one another to promote it. This development is due in no small degree to an error prevailing throughout the Middle Ages, which identified St. Denis of Paris with St. Dionysius the Areopagite, and with the Pseudo-Dionysius, the composer of the Areopagitic writings. The combining of these three persons in one was doubtless effected as early as the eighth or perhaps the seventh century, but it was only through the "Areopagitica" written in 836 byHilduin, Abbot of Saint-Denis, at the request of Louis the Pious, that this serious error took deep root. The investigations of Launoy first threw doubt on the story and the Bollandist de Bye entirely rejected it. Hilduin was probably deceived by the same apocryphal Latin and Greek fictions. The possession of the Areopagitic writings (since 827 in Saint-Denis) strengthened his conviction of this truth. Historiographers of the present day do not dispute this point. All attempts of Darras, Vidieu, C. Schneider, and others to throw some light on the subject have proved fruitless.
Here followeth the Life and Martyrdom of S. Denis, and first of his name.
Denis is as much to say as hastily fleeing, or Denis is said of dia, which is as much to say as two, and nysus, which is to say lift up, for he was lifted up after two things, that is, after the body and after the soul. Or Denis may be said of Diana, that is Venus, the goddess of beauty, and of sios, that is to say God, as who saith, he is fair to God; or as some say he is said of Dionisia, that is, after Isidore, a precious stone black, which is good against drunkenness. He was hasty in fleeing the world by perfect renunciation. He was lift up by contemplation of things within forth, he was fair to God by beauty of virtues. He profited to sinners against drunkenness of vices, and he had many names tofore his conversion, for he was called Areopagita, for the street that he dwelled in. He was called Theosophus, that is to say wise to God. Also of the wise men of Greece, he is said unto this day Pterigiontuvrani, that is to say, the wing of heaven, for he flew marvellously with the wing of spiritual understanding into heaven. Also he was said Macarius, that is, blessed. Also he was said of his country lonicus. Ionica, as saith Papias, is one of the languages of Greeks. Or Ionices be said a manner of round pillars. Or Ionicum is said a foot of versifying which hath two syllables short and twain long. By which he is showed that he was wise and knowing God by inquisition of things privy and hid, wing of heaven by love of things celestial, and blessed by possession of everlasting goods. By other things it is showed that he was a marvellous rhetorician by eloquence, a sustainer and a bearer up of the church by doctrine, short to himself by humility, and long to others by charity. S. Austin saith in the eighth book of the City of God that Ionique is a kind of philosophers, Italian, which be towards Italy, and lonian which be of the parts of Greece, and because that Denis was a sovereign philosopher he was named Ionicus. And Methodius of ConstantinopIe indited his life and his passion in Greekish tongue, and Anastasius in Latin, which was a writer of the Bible of the church of Rome, as Hincmar, bishop of Rheims, saith.
Of S. Denis.
S. Denis Areopagite was converted to the faith of Jesu Christ of S. Paul the apostle. And he was called Areopagite of the street that he dwelled in. And in that street called Areopage was the temple of Mars, for they of Athens named every street of the gods that they worshipped in the same, and that street that they worshipped in the god Mars, they called Areopage, for Areo is to say Mars, and pagus is a street, and where they worshipped Pan, they named Panopage, and so of all other streets. Areopage was the most excellent street, because that the noble men haunted it, and therein were the scholars of the arts liberal, and Denis dwelled in that street, which was a right great philosopher. And forasmuch as the plant of wisdom of the deity was in him he was called Theosophus, that is to say, knowing God. And one Apollophanes was his fellow in philosophy. There were also Epicureans, which said that all felicity of man was in only delight of the body. And Stoics, which held opinion that it was in the only virtue of courage. And then on the day of the passion of our Lord when darkness was upon the universal world, the philosophers that were at Athens could not find in causes natural the cause of that darkness. And it was no natural eclipse, for the moon was then from the sun, and was fifteen days old, and so was in a perfect distance from the sun, and nevertheless an eclipse taketh not away the light in the universal parts of the world, and it may not endure three hours long. And it appeareth that this eclipse took away all the light, by that which S. Luke saith that, our Lord suffered in all his members; and because that the eclipse was in Heliopolis, in Egypt, and Rome and in Greece. And Orosius saith that it was in Greece, and in the end of Asia the less, and saith that when our Lord was nailed to the cross there was a right great trembling and earthquave through the world. The rocks were cut asunder, and the mountains cloven, right great floods fell in many parts, more than they were wont to do, and that day, from the sixth hour unto the ninth hour, the sun lost his sight throughout all the lands of the universal world. And in that night there was no star seen in all Egypt, and this remembereth Denis to Apollophanes, saying in his epistle: The world was dark commonly of obscurity of darkness, and after the only diameter returned purged, and when he had found that the sun might not suffer such heaviness, and that we may not have knowledge in our courage, ne understand yet the mystery of this thing by our conning and wisdom. And, O Apollophanes, mirror of doctrine, what shall I say of these secrets and hid things? I attribute and put them to thee as to a mouth divine, and not as to understanding ne speech human. To whom he said: O good Denis, these be the mutations of divine things, and in the end it is signified all along, the day and the year of the annunciation that Paul our Doctor said to our deaf ears, and by the signs that all men cried, which I remembered, I have found the very truth and am delivered from the leash of falseness. These be the words of Denis that he wrote in his epistle to Polycarp, and to Apollophanes, saying: We were, we twain, at Heliopolis, and we saw the moon of heaven go disordinately, and the time was not convenable. And yet again from the ninth hour unto evensong time, at the diameter of the sun established above all natural ordinance, that eclipse we saw begin in the east and coming unto the term of the sun. After that returning again, and not purged of that default, but was made contrary after the diameter. Then Denis and Apollophanes went to Heliopolis in Egypt by desire to learn astronomy. And after, Denis returned again. That the said eclipse took away the light from the universal parts of the world, it appeareth that Eusebius witnesseth in his chronicles, which saith that he hath read in the dictes of the Ethnicians that there was in Bithynia, which is a province of Asia the less, a great earth shaking, and also the greatest darkness that might be, and also saith that in Nicene, which is a city of Bithynia, that the earth trembling threw down houses. And it is read in Scholastica Historia that the philosophers were brought to this, that they said that: The God of nature suffered death, or else the ordinance of nature in this world was dissolved, or that the elements lived, or the God of nature suffered, and the elements had pity on him. And it is said in another place, that Denis saith: This night signified that the new very light of the world should come. And they of Athens made unto this God an altar, and set this title thereupon: This is the altar of the God unknown. And on every altar of their gods the title was set above in showing to whom that altar was dedicated, and when the Athenians would make their sacrifice unto this unknown God, the philosophers said: This God hath no need of none of our gods, but let us kneel down tofore him and pray unto him devoutly, for he requireth not the oblations of beasts but the devotions of our courages. And after, when the blessed S. Paul came to Athens, the Epicurean philosophers and Stoics disputed with him. Some of them said: What will this sower of words say? And others said that he seemed a shower of new gods that be devils. And then they brought him into the street of the philosophers, for to examine their new doctrine, and they said to him: Bringest thou any new tidings? We would know what thou hast brought to us. For the Athenians entended to none other thing but to hear some new things. And then when S. Paul had beholden all their altars he saw among them the altar of God unknown, and Paul said: Whom honour ye that ye know not, him show I to you to be very God that made heaven and earth. And after, he said to Denis, whom he saw best learned in divine things: Denis, what is he, that unknown God? And Denis said: He is verily a God which among gods is not showed, but to us he is unknown, and to come into the world and to reign without end. And Paul said: Is he a man only, or spirit? And Denis said: He is God and man but he is unknown, because his conversation is in heaven. Then said S. Paul: This is he that I preach, which descended from heaven, and took our nature human, and suffered death and arose again the third day.
And as S. Denis disputed yet with S. Paul, there passed by adventure by that way a blind man tofore them, and anon Denis said to Paul: If thou say to this blind man in the name of thy God: See, and then he seeth, I shall anon believe in him, but thou shalt use no words of enchantment, for thou mayst haply know some words that have such might and virtue. And S. Paul said: I shall write tofore the form of the words, which be these: In the name of Jesu Christ, born of the virgin, crucified and dead, which arose again and ascended into heaven, and from thence shall come for to judge the world: See. And because that all suspicion be taken away, Paul said to Denis that he himself should pronounce the words. And when Denis had said those words in the same manner to the blind man, anon the blind man recovered his sight. And then Denis was baptized and Damaris his wife and all his meiny, and was a true christian man and was instructed and taught by S. Paul three years, and was ordained bishop of Athens, and there was in predication, and converted that city, and great part of the region, to christian faith. And it is said that S. Paul showed to him that he saw when he was ravished into the third heaven, like as S. Denis saith and showeth in divers places, whereof he speaketh so clearly of the hierarchies of angels, and of the orders and of the dispositions and offices of them, so that it is not supposed that he learned of any other, but only of him that was ravished into the third heaven, and had seen all things. He flourished by the spirit of prophecy like as it appeareth in an epistle that he sent to John the Evangelist, in the isle of Patmos, to which he was sent in exile, whereas he prophesied that he should come again, saying thus: Enjoy thou verily beloved, very wonderful and to be desired, right well beloved, thou shalt be let out from the keeping tbat thou hast in Patmos, and shalt return unto the land of Asia, and thou shalt make there the following of thy good God,and the good works of him, and shalt deliver them to them that shall come after thee. And, as it is seen and showed in the book of the names divine, he was at the dying of the blessed Virgin Mary. And when he heard that Peter and Paul were imprisoned at Rome under Nero, he ordained a bishop under him, and came for to visit them. And when they were martyred and passed to God, and Clement was set in the see of Rome, after a certain time he was sent of the said Clement into France, and he had in his company Rusticus and Eleutherius, and then he came with them to Paris and converted there much people to the faith, and did do make many churches, and set in them clerks of divers orders. And then he shone by so great heavenly grace that, when the bishops of the idols moved by strife the people against him, and the people came for to destroy him, anon as they had seen him they left all their cruelty, and kneeled down at his feet, where they had so great dread that they fled away from him for fear.
But the devil which had envy, and saw every day his power minished and destroyed, and that the church increased and had victory of him, moved Domitian the emperor in so great cruelty that he made a commandment that whosomever might find any christian man, that he should constrain them to do sacrifice or torment them by divers torments. And then he sent the provost Fescennius of Rome to Paris against the christian men. And found there the blessed Denis preaching, and made him cruelly to be beaten, bespit and despised, and fast to be bounden with Rusticus and Eleutherius, and to be brought tofore him: And when he saw that the saints were constant and firm in the acknowledging of our Lord, he was much heavy and sorrowful. Then came thither a noble matron, which said that her husband was foully deceived of these enchanters, and then anon the husband was sent for, and he abiding in the confession of our Lord, was anon put to death. And the saints were beaten cruelly of twelve knights, and were straightly bounden with chains of iron, and put in prison. The day following, Denis was laid upon a gridiron, and stretched all naked upon the coals of fire, and there he sang to our Lord saying: Lord thy word is vehemently fiery, and thy servant is embraced in the love thereof. And after that he was put among cruel beasts, which were excited by great hunger and famine by long fasting, and as soon as they came running upon him he made the sign of the cross against them, and anon they were made most meek and tame. And after that he was cast into a furnace of fire, and the fire anon quenched, and he had neither pain ne harm. And after that he was put on the cross, and thereon he was long tormented, and after, he was taken down and put into a dark prison with his fellows and many other christian men. And as he sang there the mass and communed the people, our Lord appeared to him with great light, and delivered to him bread, saying: Take this, my dear friend, for thy reward is most great with me. After this they were presented to the judge and were put again to new torments, and then he did do smite off the heads of the three fellows, that is to say, Denis, Rusticus, and Eleutherius, in confessing the name of the holy Trinity. And this was done by the temple of Mercury, and they were beheaded with three axes. And anon the body of S. Denis raised himself up, and bare his head between his arms, as the angel led him two leagues from the place, which is said the hill of the martyrs, unto the place where he now resteth, by his election, and by the purveyance of God. And there was heard so great and sweet a melody of angels that many of them that heard it believed in our Lord. And Laertia, wife of the foresaid provost Lubrius, said that she was christian, and anon she was beheaded of the wicked felons, and so died.
And Virbius his son, which was a knight at Rome under three emperors, came afterward to Paris and was baptized, and put himself in the number of the religious. And the wicked paynims doubted that the good christian men would bury the body of Rusticus and Eleutherius, and commanded that they should be cast into the river Seine. And a noble woman bade them to dine that bare them, and whilst they dined, this lady took away the bodies and buried them secretly in a field of hers, and after, when the persecution was ceased, she took them thence, and laid them honourably with the body of S. Denis. And they suffered death about the year of our Lord four score and sixteen, under Domitian. The years of the age of S. Denis four score and ten.
On a time when Regulus the holy bishop sang mass at Arles, and rehearsed the names of the apostles in the canon, he added and joined thereto the blessed martyrs Denis, Rusticus, and Eleutherius, which so said, many supposed that they yet lived, and marvelled why he so rehearsed their names in the canon. And they so wondering, there appeared upon the cross of the altar three doves sitting, which had the names of the saints marked and written on their breasts with blood, which diligently beholding, they understood well that the saints were departed out of this world. And Hincmar, bishop of Rheims, saith in an epistle which he sent to Charles that, this Denis that was sent into France was Denis Areopagite as afore is said, and the same saith Johannes Scotus in an epistle to Charles, lest by the reason of the counting of the time should be said against, as some would object. About the year of our Lord eight hundred and thirty-two, in the time of Louis, king of France, the messengers of Michael, emperor of Constantinople, among other things, brought to Louis, son of Charles le Grand, the books of S. Denis of the hierarchy of the angels, translated out of Greek into Latin, and were received with great joy, and that same night were nineteen sick men healed in his church.
About the year of our Lord six hundred and forty-three, like as it is contained in a chronicle, Dagobert, king of France, which reigned long tofore Pepin, began to have from his childhood great reverence to S. Denis, for when he doubted in that time the ire of his father Clothair, he fled anon to the church of S. Denis. And when this holy king was dead, it was showed in a vision unto a holy man that, the soul of him was ravished to judgment, and that many saints accused him that he had despoiled their churches. And as the wicked angels would have had him to the pains, the blessed Denis came thither, and by him he was delivered at his coming, and escaped from the pains, and peradventure the soul returned to the body and did penance. King Clovis discovered the body of S. Denis not duly, and brake the bone of his arm and ravished it away covetously, and anon he became out of his mind. Then let us worship Almighty God in his saints, that we, by their merits, may amend ourselves in this wretched life, that we may after this life come into his sempiternal bliss in heaven. Amen.